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MitoVasc : physiopathologie cardiovasculaire et mitochondriale


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    Mitochondria and Reproduction

    Mitochondria and Reproduction

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    Pascale May-Panloup

    Pascale May-Panloup

    University Professor-Hospital Practitioner

    pascale.may-panloup @ univ-angers.fr

     

     

     

     

     

    State of the art and objectives

    Mitochondria are directly involved in many cellular functions such as energy production. They have the particularity to possess their own genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally transmitted. Recently, much attention has been focused on the role the mtDNA plays in reproduction, evidencing links between mitochondrial function mtDNA copy number and sperm quality. Moreover, progresses have been made in determining the role of mitochondria with respect to oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development. Mitochondrial dysfunctions have also been found in various infertility related pathologies such as ovarian ageing and endometriosis. Lastly, mtDNA content of granulosa cells and trophoectoderm, and free mtDNA in embryo culture medium, are explored as biomarkers of oocyte competence and embryo viability with the aim to improve Assisted Reproductive Technologies efficiency. Over the last 15 years, we have contributed to this field by the publication of several articles on the theme of “Mitochondria and Reproduction” and various projects are in progress.

    Main results from the last 5 years

    We are interested on the role of mitochondria in ovarian ageing and oocyte quality;

    • We have disclosed a link between the mitochondrial genetics i.e. the mitochondrial haplogroups and ovarian reserve depletion, with the JT macro-haplogroup playing a protective role in ovarian aging (2014).
    • Using deep sequencing, we demonstrated that oocytes are not prone to accumulate mtDNA heteroplasmic mutations during ovarian ageing (2017).
    • We also found in cumulus cells a relationship between the decrease of ovarian reserve and mitochondrial biogenesis (2015)
    • We have proposed that the quantification of mtDNA in cumulus cells can serve as a biomarker of embryonic quality (2017) and of embryo implantation (2018).
    • Finally, using a murine model, we demonstrated a dysregulation of mtDNA kinetics in early embryogenesis during ageing (manuscript in revision)

      People involved

    • Seniors: Pascal Reynier, Pascale May-Panloup
    • Students: Lisa Boucret, Arthur Clément, Alexis Taugourdeau, Magalie Boguenet
    • Engineers/technicians : Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Stéphanie Chupin

     Main publications and patents from the 5 last years.

     Collaborations:

    • INRA Jouy en Josas UMR 1198

     Acknowledgements for the financial supports

    • Agence de la Biomédecine – Appel d’Offre Recherche “AMP, diagnostic prenatal et diagnostic génétique” 2017
    • University Hospital of Angers, University of Angers, France, and the French national research centers INSERM and the CNRS.